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PP, PS, SP, and SS Seismic

25th February 2016


Conventional seismic data (marine data and vertical geophones for land data) is processed and interpreted as P-wave energy. However, it is with the use of multi-component seismic, with multi-component sources as well as multi-component receivers, that the full (vector – ) wavefield will be recorded. Such datasets can then be used to extract, with enhanced confidence, P-wave and S-wave characteristics, elastic constants, and anisotropy attributes and be able to better discriminate lithologies and indicate the presence of hydrocarbons.

This requires special multi-component data processing techniques. As S-waves are more sensitive to anisotropy than P-waves and moreover display the unique feature of shear-wave birefringence (shear-wave splitting), it is necessary to take anisotropy into account in the processing. Such anisotropy can then be related to its causes and allow the derivation of e.g. fracture orientation and fracture density. As a marine environment does not support S-waves, the only way to record S-waves in such an environment is with ocean bottom cables (OBC) and ocean bottom systems (OBS), where use is made of the generation of reflected S-wave energy at the reflectors from incident P-waves. Note that all seabed acquisition systems are necessarily multi-component systems.

Multi-component data acquisition and the various ways of multi-component data processing will be treated and a full understanding of anisotropy will be provided.

A case study with acquisition and processing of a real 3D nine-component seismic survey combines all aspects

Who Should Attend

Geophysicists and interpreters/geologists who want to familiarize themselves with all aspects multi-component seismic and be able to assess the added value of such datasets. As all seabed seismic systems are multi-component the application of this technology in a production environment (time-lapse) will only increase. The theory is based on first principles; the applications exploit the latest developments in acquisition and processing and demonstrates how multi-disciplinary teams can share information in a meaningful way

Key Learning Points

  • Participants will be able to apply the commonly used multi-component processing methods and produce in the end the PP, PS, SP and SS datasets together with the characteristics of each of these for subsequent interpretation
  • Participants will understand anisotropy and be able to assess its consequences for seismic data processing and be able to extract the relevant anisotropy parameters and use these for subsequent interpretation
  • Participants can provide the geophysical input that is required in a multi-disciplinary team that is considering a multi-component seismic survey

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